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APA Journal: American Psychologist

Psychologists in patient-centered medical homes (PCMHs): Roles, evidence, opportunities, and challenges.Open in a New Window

The patient-centered medical home (PCMH) is an increasingly common model of health care delivery with many exciting opportunities for psychologists. The PCMH reflects a philosophy and model of care that is highly consistent with psychological science and practice. It strives to provide patient-centered, comprehensive, team-based, coordinated, accessible, and quality and safety-oriented health care delivery to individuals and families. Moreoever, in keeping with changes in the health care system more broadly, the PCMH model prioritizes the integration of behavioral and physical health care, and this emphasis lays the foundation for active and full engagement of psychologists in this context. This article provides an overview of the PCMH and the evidence and roles for psychologists across a range of pediatric, adult, and geriatric health care populations and settings. Current challenges to the necessary expansion of psychology in the PCMH are discussed, with particular attention to the needs for training and advocacy to support the contributions of behavioral health care in the PCMH. Psychology must embrace its rightful place as a health profession and appreciate and highlight the ways in which psychologists can play unique and critical roles in transforming present and future health care delivery models. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)

 

The Pediatric Patient-Centered Medical Home: Innovative models for improving behavioral health.Open in a New Window

This article examines the concept of the Patient-Centered Medical Home (PCMH) as it applies to children and adolescents, emphasizing care for behavioral health conditions, the role of psychology and psychological science, and next steps for developing evidence-informed models for the Pediatric-PCMH. The PCMH concept for pediatric populations offers unique opportunities for psychological science to inform and enhance the transformation of the United States health care system and improve health in our nation. Available evidence on the outcomes of PCMH implementation for pediatric populations is limited, underscoring the need for additional research evaluating Pediatric-PCMH models and concepts. While behavioral health has only recently been emphasized as a formal part of the PCMH, accumulating evidence supports the effectiveness of some approaches for providing behavioral health care through pediatric primary care. These approaches suggest that a comprehensive Pediatric-PCMH model that includes behavioral health care has the potential to optimize the availability, quality, benefits, and cost-effectiveness of behavioral health services. This could ultimately enhance youth health and behavioral health, with effects potentially extending through the adult years. Rigorous research and demonstration projects are needed to guide further development of optimal strategies for improving health and behavioral health in pediatric populations and advancing the public health impact of behavioral health care services. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)

 

Psychology in patient-centered medical homes: Reducing health disparities and promoting health equity.Open in a New Window

With persisting health disparities contributing to a disproportionate impact on the health and well-being of socially disenfranchised and medically underserved populations, the emerging patient-centered medical home (PCMH) model offers promise in bridging the health disparities divide. Because behavioral health care is an important component of the PCMH, psychologists have significant opportunity to contribute to the development and implementation of PCMH services in settings that primarily serve medically underserved communities. In this article, after briefly defining the PCMH model and its role in clinical settings for medically underserved populations for whom health disparities are present, roles of psychologists as interprofessional collaborators on PCMH medical care teams are explored. Next, the constellation of competencies that position psychologists as behavioral health specialists to contribute to PCMH care teams for medically underserved groups are characterized. The article concludes with reflections on the prospects for psychologists to make tangible contributions as health care team members toward reducing health disparities and promoting health equity in patients served in the PCMH. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)

 

Meeting evolving workforce needs: Preparing psychologists for leadership in the patient-centered medical home.Open in a New Window

Behavioral health integration in the patient-centered medical home (PCMH) offers opportunities for psychologists to play leadership roles. Widespread practice transition to PCMH models of care are expected to substantially impact the psychology workforce. Conservative estimates suggest that approximately 90% of the 93,000 clinically trained psychologists would be required to meet projected need in these settings. This has implications for how health service psychologists are trained. In addition to relevant clinical competencies, they must be versed in system/program development, administration, evaluation, quality improvement, and interprofessional collaboration. Herein, the need to introduce psychologists to the many potential roles in the PCMH is underscored. Inherent to effective work in the PCMH is the synthesis of professional competences in addition to those traditionally included in psychology training. We offer a competency-based PCMH training framework adapted from levels of intensity in the Education and Training Guidelines: A taxonomy for education and training in professional psychology health service specialties (American Psychological Association, 2012). Practical examples of training activities, taking into account available programmatic resources, also are presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)

 

Payment reform in the patient-centered medical home: Enabling and sustaining integrated behavioral health care.Open in a New Window

The patient-centered medical home (PCMH) is a promising framework for the redesign of primary care and more recently specialty care. As defined by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, the PCMH framework has 5 attributes: comprehensive care, patient-centered care, coordinated care, accessible services, and quality and safety. Evidence increasingly demonstrates that for the PCMH to best achieve the Triple Aim (improved outcomes, decreased cost, and enhanced patient experience), treatment for behavioral health (including mental health, substance use, and life stressors) must be integrated as a central tenet. However, challenges to implementing the PCMH framework are compounded for real-world practitioners because payment reform rarely happens concurrently. Nowhere is this more evident than in attempts to integrate behavioral health clinicians into primary care. As behavioral health clinicians find opportunities to work in integrated settings, a comprehensive understanding of payment models is integral to the dialogue. This article describes alternatives to the traditional fee for service (FFS) model, including modified FFS, pay for performance, bundled payments, and global payments (i.e., capitation). We suggest that global payment structures provide the best fit to enable and sustain integrated behavioral health clinicians in ways that align with the Triple Aim. Finally, we present recommendations that offer specific, actionable steps to achieve payment reform, complement PCMH, and support integration efforts through policy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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