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APA Journal: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors

A longitudinal analysis of drinking and victimization in college women: Is there a reciprocal relationship?Open in a New Window

The purpose of the current study was to assess the relationship between drinking and severe physical and sexual victimization in a sample of 989 college women over 5 years. Participants completed a Web-based survey each fall semester, beginning as first-time incoming freshman, and continuing each year for 5 years. The survey was comprehensive in assessing drinking, victimization, and relevant covariates. Women were followed whether they remained at university or not. Prior year same type of severe victimization predicted current year victimization, both severe physical and sexual. However, prior year drinking did not predict current year severe victimization. Prior year severe sexual victimization predicted current year drinking. Our findings of a longitudinal relationship between severe sexual victimization and subsequent increases in drinking suggests that college women may be drinking to cope with negative sequelae that they experience as a result of the victimization. We did not find the same longitudinal relationship between drinking and severe physical or sexual victimization, suggesting that a reciprocal relationship does not exist between drinking and victimization among college women. We did find that severe sexual victimization decreased across college, suggesting that the year prior to and the first year of college may be a critical period for intervening to reduce risk for severe victimization. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)

 

Protective behavioral strategies, alcohol expectancies, and drinking motives in a model of college student drinking.Open in a New Window

An extensive body of research asserts alcohol expectancies, or beliefs regarding the effects of alcohol, as an important influence on drinking. However, the extent to which expectancies are related to drinking motives and protective behavioral strategies (PBS) has yet to be examined. Existing alcohol mediational models suggest associations between expectancies and drinking motives as well as positive drinking motives and PBS use. Thus, it is possible that drinking motives and PBS use act as intervening factors in the relationship between expectancies and alcohol outcomes. Consequently, the cross-sectional study presented here aimed to test the indirect effect of expectancies (i.e., social facilitation) on alcohol outcomes through drinking motives and PBS use. Participants were 520 (358 female) college student drinkers with a mean age of 20.80 (SD = 4.61) years. Students completed measures of expectancies, drinking motives, PBS use, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems. Results from structural equation modeling indicated that drinking motives and PBS mediated the relationship between social expectancies and alcohol use. In particular, expectancies were associated with greater positive drinking motives, drinking motives were associated with less PBS use, and PBS was associated with less alcohol use and fewer alcohol-related problems. Given the key role of PBS in explaining drinking outcomes in our model, active efforts to incorporate PBS in alcohol interventions may be particularly beneficial for college students. Further, our findings support the consideration of PBS use as a part of the motivational model of alcohol use in future work. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)

 

Parental and peer influences on alcohol use during the transition out of college.Open in a New Window

Parental and peer drinking and attitudes have been identified as predictors of drinking during adolescence and the transition to college, but little is known about these influences during the transition out of college. The current study assessed the influence of parents and peers on drinking behavior in a large sample of college drinkers (N = 1,665), using a cross-lagged panel structural equation model (SEM) across 3 time-points: final year of college and annually for the following 2 years. Multigroup models were tested for White compared with Hispanic and Asian American students to determine if parental and peer influences operated similarly for these groups. Results in the full sample indicated that peer selection effects were present both during the initial transition out of college and between 1 year and 2 years postcollege. Although peer socialization effects were not present during the initial transition out of college, there was evidence of peer socialization from 1 year postcollege to 2 years postcollege. During the initial transition out of college direct effects of familial drinking on student drinking were evident, whereas family drinking indirectly impacted student drinking through peer selection from 1 year to 2 years postcollege. Multigroup analyses identified group differences only between 1 and 2 years postcollege. During this time period, peer selection and family effects on peer selection were evident among ethnic minority students but not among White students. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)

 

Daily associations between anxiety and alcohol use: Variation by sustained attention, set shifting, and gender.Open in a New Window

Many theories of emotion regulation and alcohol use posit that alcohol is consumed as a way to regulate negative mood. However, the literature has conflicting evidence on mood−alcohol use associations. Understanding how individual differences affect mood−alcohol use associations remains an important area of study. Previous research has suggested that cognitive abilities may affect the relationship between mood and alcohol. The current ecological momentary study examined associations between daytime anxious and positive mood and both (a) the likelihood of alcohol use and (b) the intensity of use on drinking nights as a function of sustained attention, set shifting, and gender. Participants (n = 100) completed assessments of sustained attention and set shifting, then carried palmtop computers for 21 days, reporting mood and alcohol use up to 8 times per day. Results showed that positive mood was consistently associated with both likelihood and intensity of alcohol use, but the association between positive mood and alcohol outcomes was not affected by cognitive abilities. Anxious mood was positively associated with the likelihood of drinking for men with high cognitive abilities. Anxious mood was positively associated with intoxication on drinking nights for men with high sustained attention, but inversely associated with intoxication on drinking nights for women with high sustained attention. Results suggest that variation in mood, executive functioning, and gender interact to contribute to observed differences in drinking behavior. These differences may be the result of gender-specific coping strategies in response to negative emotion. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)

 

The relevance of network prominence and reciprocity of relationships for alcohol use and alcohol-related problems in a college residence hall network.Open in a New Window

Peer associations are influential for substance use among college students, but relatively few investigations have been conducted on the social network characteristics that are associated with problematic alcohol use in college. This study investigated the association between network characteristics of prestige, expansiveness, and reciprocity and alcohol use variables in a college residence hall network. Undergraduate students in 1 residence hall (N = 129; 51.9% female; 48.1% non-Hispanic White; 84.5% first-year) reported on their alcohol use and alcohol-related problems in the past semester and nominated up to 10 residence hall peers who were important to them. Network autocorrelation modeling evaluated the association between 5 network variables reflecting prestige (indegree and betweenness centrality), expansiveness (outdegree), and relationship agreement (indegree reciprocity and outdegree reciprocity) and 3 indicators of alcohol use (drinks per week, number of heavy drinking days, number of alcohol problems). Moderation by gender of the associations between network characteristics and alcohol variables was also investigated. Models controlled for demographics and network autocorrelation. A higher outdegree and higher betweenness centrality within the residence hall network were significantly related to the number of heavy drinking days and number of alcohol problems, respectively. Higher indegree and higher betweenness centrality were associated with more alcohol problems for women when alcohol use was controlled. Having higher prestige and indicating oneself as having more friends in a college residential network may convey alcohol-related risks, with some risks higher for women. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)

 

Pre- to postimmigration alcohol use trajectories among recent Latino immigrants.Open in a New Window

The escalation of alcohol use among some Latino immigrant groups as their time in the United States increases has been well documented. Yet, little is known about the alcohol use behaviors of Latino immigrants before immigration. This prospective longitudinal study examines pre- to postimmigration alcohol use trajectories among a cohort of recent Latino immigrants. Retrospective preimmigration data were collected at baseline from a sample of 455 Cuban, South American, and Central American Latinos ages 18–34 who immigrated to the United States less than 1 year prior. Two follow-up assessments (12 months apart) reported on their postimmigration alcohol use in the past 90 days. We hypothesized (a) overall declines in pre- to postimmigration alcohol among recent Latino immigrants and (b) gender/documentation specific effects, with higher rates of alcohol use among males and undocumented participants compared to their female and documented counterparts. Growth curve analyses revealed males had higher levels of preimmigration alcohol use with steeper declines in postimmigration alcohol use compared to females. Declines in alcohol use frequency were observed for documented, but not undocumented males. No changes in pre- to postimmigration alcohol use were found for documented or undocumented females. This study contributes to the limited knowledge of pre- to postimmigration alcohol use patterns among Latinos in the United States. Future research is needed to identify social determinants associated with the alcohol use trajectories of recent Latino immigrants, as it may inform prediction, prevention, and treatment of problem-drinking behaviors among the largest and fastest growing ethnic minority in the United States. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)

 

Testing the four-factor model of personality vulnerability to alcohol misuse: A three-wave, one-year longitudinal study.Open in a New Window

The 4-factor model of personality vulnerability identifies 4 personality risk factors for alcohol misuse: hopelessness, anxiety sensitivity, impulsivity, and sensation seeking. These personality traits are associated with distinct mechanisms and motivations for alcohol misuse. Individuals high in hopelessness drink to regulate dysphoric affect, while those high in anxiety sensitivity drink to reduce anxiety and to conform to peer expectations. Individuals high in sensation seeking are highly sensitive to the rewarding properties of alcohol, and misuse alcohol to maximize enjoyment. Impulsivity is a broad risk factor contributing to all drinking motives. We hypothesized that personality vulnerabilities would indirectly predict alcohol quantity and problems through specific drinking motives theorized by the 4-factor model. The present study tested hypotheses using a 3-wave, 1-year longitudinal study of undergraduate drinkers (N = 302). Data were analyzed using multilevel path analysis. Hopelessness and impulsivity were positively related to drinking motives in the expected fashion. Anxiety sensitivity was related to coping-anxiety and conformity motives only in the between-subjects model (partially supporting hypotheses), while sensation seeking was generally unrelated to all drinking motives and alcohol outcomes (failing to support hypotheses). Enhancement motives predicted alcohol quantity and problems at both levels, coping-depression motives predicted alcohol problems at the between-subjects level only, and coping-anxiety, conformity, and social motives failed to predict alcohol outcomes beyond other motives. Overall, this study partially supports the 4-factor model, with the strongest support emerging for impulsivity and hopelessness. This study suggests that personality traits such as impulsivity and hopelessness may be important targets in prevention and treatment with undergraduate drinkers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)

 

An experience sampling study of PTSD and alcohol-related problems.Open in a New Window

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) represents a debilitating psychiatric condition that is affecting the lives of many returning veterans. PTSD and alcohol use and dependence are highly comorbid. The purpose of this study was to understand the functional mechanisms between PTSD and alcohol use and problems. Specifically, the role of negative urgency and emotional intelligence were investigated as vulnerability and resiliency factors, respectively. This study utilized experience sampling to test associations between PTSD symptoms and alcohol use and related problems in a sample of 90 OIF/OEF veterans. Participants completed 8 brief questionnaires daily for 2 weeks on palmtop computers. Elevations in PTSD symptoms during the day were associated with subsequent increases in alcohol use and associated problems that night. PTSD symptoms were associated with greater problems above and beyond the effect of drinking level at both the within- and between- person level. Emotional intelligence was associated with lower negative urgency, fewer PTSD symptoms, and less alcohol use and associated problems. The effects of emotional intelligence were primarily indirect via negative urgency and the effects of negative urgency on alcohol use and problems were indirect via its positive association with PTSD symptoms. Hypothesized cross-level effects of emotional intelligence and negative urgency were not supported. The findings suggest a functional association between PTSD symptoms and alcohol consumption. The association between PTSD symptoms and alcohol consumption is consistent with a self-medication model. However, the significant associations between PTSD symptoms and alcohol problems, after controlling for use level, suggest a broader role of dysregulation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)

 

When less is more and more is less in brief motivational interventions: Characteristics of intervention content and their associations with drinking outcomes.Open in a New Window

Brief motivational interventions (BMIs) that aim to reduce alcohol use and related problems have been widely implemented in college settings. BMIs share common principles, but vary in specific content. Thus far, the variation in content has not been thoroughly understood in relation to intervention outcomes. The present study addressed this gap by examining variation in breadth of BMI content (i.e., total number of components covered), the extent to which content was personalized to participants, and the interaction between breadth and personalization in relation to treatment outcomes. Data (N = 6,047 participants across 31 separate BMI conditions) came from an integrative data analysis (IDA) study featuring individual-level data from a broad sample of 24 BMI studies of college students. Participants were assessed at baseline and at least 1 follow-up point, conducted up to 12 months postbaseline. Structural equation modeling revealed a significant interaction effect between breadth and personalization of BMI content on alcohol use and related problems at the long-term follow-up (6–12 months) but not at the short-term follow-up (1–3 months). Results indicated that “more is better” for reducing both alcohol use and related problems when BMIs were highly personalized to participants. For less personalized BMIs, coverage of more components was associated with increases in both alcohol use and problems. Findings point to the importance of strategically designing BMIs to maximize their impact on drinking outcomes in college students. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)

 

Examining the efficacy of a brief group protective behavioral strategies skills training alcohol intervention with college women.Open in a New Window

College students’ use of protective behavioral strategies (PBS; e.g., determining not to exceed a set number of drinks, avoiding drinking games) is related to lower levels of alcohol consumption and problems. The present study evaluated the efficacy of a novel brief, single-session group PBS skills training intervention aimed at increasing college students’ use of PBS and reducing risky drinking and consequences. Participants (N = 226) were heavy-drinking incoming first-year college women randomized to either a PBS skills training intervention or study skills control condition. Participants attended a 45-min group session and completed online surveys pre- and postintervention (1 month and 6 months). We conducted a series of 2 × 2 × 3 repeated-measures ANCOVAs with condition and baseline mental health (anxiety/depression) as the between-subjects factors and time as the within-subjects factor. Intervention participants, relative to controls, reported significantly greater increases in PBS use and reductions in both heavy episodic drinking and alcohol consequences. The intervention was particularly effective in increasing PBS use at 1 month among participants with high anxiety. Further, tests of moderated mediation showed a significant conditional indirect effect of condition on 1-month consequences through PBS use among participants with high levels of anxiety. Findings provide preliminary support for a brief PBS-specific group intervention to reduce alcohol risk among college women, particularly anxious women. Future research is needed to strengthen the long-term effectiveness of the present approach and further explore the moderating effects of mental health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)

 

Coping, PTSD symptoms, and alcohol involvement in trauma-exposed college students in the first three years of college.Open in a New Window

The objective of the present study was to examine prospective, bidirectional associations among posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, coping style, and alcohol involvement (use, consequences) in a sample of trauma-exposed students just entering college. We also sought to test the mechanistic role that coping may play in associations between PTSD symptoms and problem alcohol involvement over time. Participants (N = 734) completed measures of trauma exposure, PTSD symptoms, coping, and alcohol use and consequences in September of their first college year and again each September for the next 2 years. We observed reciprocal associations between PTSD and negative coping strategies. In our examination of a mediated pathway through coping, we found an indirect association from alcohol consequences and PTSD symptoms via negative coping, suggesting that alcohol consequences may exacerbate posttraumatic stress over time by promoting negative coping strategies. Trauma characteristics such as type (interpersonal vs. noninterpersonal) and trauma reexposure did not moderate these pathways. Models were also invariant across gender. Findings from the present study point to risk that is conferred by both PTSD and alcohol consequences for using negative coping approaches, and through this, for posttraumatic stress. Interventions designed to decrease negative coping may help to offset this risk, leading to more positive outcomes for those students who enter college with trauma exposure. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)

 

Profiles of confidence and commitment to change as predictors of moderated drinking: A person-centered approach.Open in a New Window

Identifying who, among problem drinkers, is best suited for moderation and has the greatest likelihood to control drinking has important public health implications. The current study aimed to identify profiles of problem drinkers who may be more or less successful in moderating drinking within the context of a randomized clinical trial of a brief treatment for alcohol use disorder. A person-centered approach was implemented, utilizing composite, baseline daily diary values of confidence and commitment to reduce drinking. Problem drinkers (N = 89) were assessed, provided feedback about their drinking, and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 conditions: 2 brief alcohol use disorder treatments or a third group asked to change on their own. Global self-report assessments were administered at baseline and Week 8 (end of treatment). Daily diary composites were created from data collected via an interactive voice recording system during the week prior to baseline. A K-means cluster analysis identified 3 groups: high, moderate, and low confidence and commitment to change drinking. Group differences were explored, and then group membership was entered into generalized estimating equations to predict drinking trajectories over time. Findings revealed that the groups differentially reduced their drinking, such that the high group had greater reduction in drinking and a faster rate of reduction than the other 2 groups, and the moderate group had greater reduction than the low group. Findings suggest that baseline motivation and self-efficacy are important for predicting prognoses related to successful moderated drinking. Limitations and arenas for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)

 

Psychometric properties of the System for Coding Couples’ Interactions in Therapy–-Alcohol.Open in a New Window

Few systems are available for coding in-session behaviors for couples in therapy. Alcohol Behavioral Couple Therapy (ABCT) is an empirically supported treatment, but little is known about its mechanisms of behavior change. In the current study, an adapted version of the Motivational Interviewing for Significant Others coding system was developed into the System for Coding Couples’ Interactions in Therapy–Alcohol (SCCIT-A), which was used to code couples’ interactions and behaviors during ABCT. Results showed good interrater reliability of the SCCIT-A and provided evidence that the SCCIT-A may be a promising measure for understanding couples in therapy. A 3-factor model of the SCCIT-A (Positive, Negative, and Change Talk/Counter-Change Talk) was examined using a confirmatory factor analysis, but model fit was poor. Because model fit was poor, ratios were computed for Positive/Negative ratings and for Change Talk/Counter-Change Talk codes based on previous research in the couples and Motivational Interviewing literature. Post hoc analyses examined correlations between specific SCCIT-A codes and baseline characteristics, and indicated some concurrent validity. Correlations were run between ratios and baseline characteristics; ratios may be an alternative to using the factors from the SCCIT-A. Reliability and validity analyses suggest that the SCCIT-A has the potential to be a useful measure for coding in-session behaviors of both partners in couples therapy and could be used to identify mechanisms of behavior change for ABCT. Additional research is needed to improve the reliability of some codes and to further develop the SCCIT-A and other measures of couples’ interactions in therapy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)

 

Psychiatric correlates of injection risk behavior among young people who inject drugs.Open in a New Window

People who inject drugs (PWID) and have mental health conditions, such as major depression, an anxiety disorder, or antisocial or borderline personality disorder, may have elevated risk for HIV and HCV infection. This study examined the associations between psychiatric disorders and risky injection behavior in an out-of-treatment sample of young PWID. We recruited participants through outreach and respondent-driven sampling (RDS). Participants completed a computer-assisted self-interview and a psychiatric interview. Interviews took place at a community-based field site of the Community Outreach Intervention Projects. Participants were 570 young adults (18 to 25 years) who injected drugs in the previous 30 days. Psychiatric diagnoses were based on interviews using the Psychiatric Research Interview for Substance and Mental Disorders (PRISM). Injection behavior was classified into 3 categories: receptive syringe sharing, other equipment sharing only, and no sharing. Associations between injection risk behavior and psychiatric diagnoses were tested using RDS-weighted multinomial regressions. Substance-induced lifetime and past-year major depression, and borderline personality disorder, were significantly associated with a greater likelihood of receptive syringe sharing (p < .001). Substance-induced major depression in the past year was also associated with nonsyringe equipment sharing (p < .01). Primary major depression, antisocial personality disorder, and anxiety disorders other than posttraumatic stress disorder were slightly more prevalent among injectors who shared syringes; however, the associations were not statistically significant. Substance-induced major depression and borderline personality disorder are common among young PWID and are associated with risky injection behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)

 

The influence of age of onset and acute anabolic steroid exposure on cognitive performance, impulsivity, and aggression in men.Open in a New Window

[Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 28(4) of Psychology of Addictive Behaviors (see record 2014-44847-001). The name of author Heather Berlin omitted a middle initial in the byline and author note and should appear as Heather A. Berlin.] A growing translational literature suggests that adolescent exposure to anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) leads to increased aggression and impulsivity. However, little is known about the cognitive effects of AASs among AAS users or the differences between adolescent- and adult-onset users. This study provides a test of the effects of acute naturalistic AAS use and age of onset (adolescent vs. adult) on measures of inhibitory control, planning and attention, and decision making. Seventy-one active adult male AAS users completed self-report measures of impulsivity and aggression, and a subsample (11 adolescent onset vs. 11 adult onset) matched on current age were administered 4 computerized tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) (Cambridge Cognition, 2002) and the Iowa Gambling Task (Stanton, Liening, & Schultheiss, 2011). Multiple regression analyses and a series of 2 (adolescent vs. adult) × 2 (on-cycle vs. off-cycle) analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were used to examine the differential effects of age of onset and acute drug use on cognition and behavior. Regression analyses revealed larger on-cycle effects for adolescent users than adult users. Subsample analyses indicated that on-cycle users performed less well on cognitive measures of inhibitory control and attention, but not on tests of planning or decision making. Adolescent onset was associated with greater impulsivity and more acute sensitivity to AAS effects on attention. These preliminary findings suggest the possibility that acute AAS use is associated with some differences in inhibitory control and impulsivity and to a lesser degree, aggression. These effects may be more potent for those initiating AAS use in adolescence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)

 

Correction to Hilderbrandt et al. (2014).Open in a New Window

Reports an error in "The Influence of Age of Onset and Acute Anabolic Steroid Exposure on Cognitive Performance, Impulsivity, and Aggression in Men" by Tom Hildebrandt, James W. Langenbucher, Adrianne Flores, Seth Harty and Heather A. Berlin (Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, Advanced Online Publication, May 19, 2014, np). The name of author Heather Berlin omitted a middle initial in the byline and author note and should appear as Heather A. Berlin. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2014-20547-001.) A growing translational literature suggests that adolescent exposure to anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) leads to increased aggression and impulsivity. However, little is known about the cognitive effects of AASs among AAS users or the differences between adolescent- and adult-onset users. This study provides a test of the effects of acute naturalistic AAS use and age of onset (adolescent vs. adult) on measures of inhibitory control, planning and attention, and decision making. Seventy-one active adult male AAS users completed self-report measures of impulsivity and aggression, and a subsample (11 adolescent onset vs. 11 adult onset) matched on current age were administered 4 computerized tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) (Cambridge Cognition, 2002) and the Iowa Gambling Task (Stanton, Liening, & Schultheiss, 2011). Multiple regression analyses and a series of 2 (adolescent vs. adult) × 2 (on-cycle vs. off-cycle) analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were used to examine the differential effects of age of onset and acute drug use on cognition and behavior. Regression analyses revealed larger on-cycle effects for adolescent users than adult users. Subsample analyses indicated that on-cycle users performed less well on cognitive measures of inhibitory control and attention, but not on tests of planning or decision making. Adolescent onset was associated with greater impulsivity and more acute sensitivity to AAS effects on attention. These preliminary findings suggest the possibility that acute AAS use is associated with some differences in inhibitory control and impulsivity and to a lesser degree, aggression. These effects may be more potent for those initiating AAS use in adolescence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)

 

Correlates of recent drug use among victimized women on probation and parole.Open in a New Window

Guided by the Comprehensive Health Seeking and Coping Paradigm (CHSCP; Nyamathi, 1989), the present research sought to examine associations between victimization, psychological distress, lawbreaking and recent drug use (past 12 months) among 406 victimized women on probation and parole. Bivariate differences between women who reported recent drug use and those who did not report recent use were compared across the 4 domains of the CHSCP (sociodemographic characteristics, personal resources, lifetime victimization, dynamic crime and drug factors). Variables significantly related to recent drug use at the bivariate level were retained in the multivariate analysis. The final multivariate model, using stepwise logistic regression via backward elimination, retained five candidate variables indicating women who recently used drugs, were younger, were not sexually victimized as children, began using drugs before they were 13 years of age, were on probation, and had engaged in more recent lawbreaking. The final model accounted for approximately 30% of the variance in drug use over the past 12 months. Implications for intervention and future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)

 

Associations between childhood adversity, adult stressful life events, and past-year drug use disorders in the National Epidemiological Study of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC).Open in a New Window

Stress sensitization, whereby CA lowers tolerance to later stressors, has been proposed as a potential mechanism explaining the association between exposure to childhood adversities (CA) and drug use disorders in adulthood. However, this mechanism remains untested. This paper begins to address this gap through exploring associations between CA exposure and stressful events in adulthood for predicting drug use disorders. We used data drawn from Wave 2 of the U.S. National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (n = 34,653) to explore whether the association between past-year stressful life events and the 12-month prevalence of disordered cannabis, stimulant, and opiate use varied by the number of types of CA that an individual was exposed to. Past-year stressful life events were associated with an increased risk of cannabis, stimulant, and opiate use disorders among men and women. Exposure to CA was associated with increased risk for disordered cannabis use among men and women and opiate use among men only. Finally, we found significant associations between exposure to CA and past-year stressful life events in predicting disordered drug use, but only for women in relation to disordered stimulant and opiate use. Findings are suggestive of possible stress sensitization effects in predicting disordered stimulant and opiate use among women. Implications of these findings for the prevention and treatment of drug use disorders and for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)

 

Applying an ensemble classification tree approach to the prediction of completion of a 12-step facilitation intervention with stimulant abusers.Open in a New Window

The purpose of this study was to explore the selection of predictor variables in the evaluation of drug treatment completion using an ensemble approach with classification trees. The basic methodology is reviewed, and the subagging procedure of random subsampling is applied. Among 234 individuals with stimulant use disorders randomized to a 12-step facilitative intervention shown to increase stimulant use abstinence, 67.52% were classified as treatment completers. A total of 122 baseline variables were used to identify factors associated with completion. The number of types of self-help activity involvement prior to treatment was the predominant predictor. Other effective predictors included better coping self-efficacy for substance use in high-risk situations, more days of prior meeting attendance, greater acceptance of the Disease model, higher confidence for not resuming use following discharge, lower Addiction Severity Index (ASI) Drug and Alcohol composite scores, negative urine screens for cocaine or marijuana, and fewer employment problems. The application of an ensemble subsampling regression tree method utilizes the fact that classification trees are unstable but, on average, produce an improved prediction of the completion of drug abuse treatment. The results support the notion there are early indicators of treatment completion that may allow for modification of approaches more tailored to fitting the needs of individuals and potentially provide more successful treatment engagement and improved outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)

 

The relation between number of smoking friends, and quit intentions, attempts, and success: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey.Open in a New Window

Smokers who inhabit social contexts with a greater number of smokers may be exposed to more positive norms toward smoking and more cues to smoke. This study examines the relation between number of smoking friends and changes in number of smoking friends, and smoking cessation outcomes. Data were drawn from Wave 1 (2002) and Wave 2 (2003) of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Project Four Country Survey, a longitudinal cohort survey of nationally representative samples of adult smokers in Australia, Canada, United Kingdom, and United States (N = 6,321). Smokers with fewer smoking friends at Wave 1 were more likely to intend to quit at Wave 1 and were more likely to succeed in their attempts to quit at Wave 2. Compared with smokers who experienced no change in their number of smoking friends, smokers who lost smoking friends were more likely to intend to quit at Wave 2, attempt to quit between Wave 1 and Wave 2, and succeed in their quit attempts at Wave 2. Smokers who inhabit social contexts with a greater number of smokers may be less likely to successfully quit. Quitting may be particularly unlikely among smokers who do not experience a loss in the number of smokers in their social context. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)

 

Control perceptions moderate attitudinal and normative effects on intention to quit smoking.Open in a New Window

Consistent with behavioral theory such as the theory of planned behavior, numerous studies on determinants of smoking cessation confirmed that attitude, subjective norm, and perceived control each can correlate with intention to quit smoking. However, such main effect findings indicate additive attitudinal, normative, and control effects on quit intention, which is not a truly explanatory account of psychological processes that explain formation of quit intentions among smokers. The purpose of the research reported here was to test one such explanatory process, namely that perceived control moderates attitudinal and normative effects, such that the more smokers feel that they can successfully quit, the stronger attitude and subjective norm affect quit intention. To test the perceived control as moderator hypothesis, the authors submitted data from 3,428 adult smokers to hierarchical regression analyses and demonstrated that in this sample perceived control interacted with attitude (b = .16) and perceived norm (b = .11), f 2 =.04. Furthermore, the authors found that experience with previous quit attempts mattered, such that compared with smokers with relatively short-lived previous quit attempts and smokers who had never tried to quit, the Perceived Control × Attitude interaction in particular was greatest among smokers who had experienced relatively longer periods of remaining quit. Two clear implications of these findings are that behavioral theory should reconsider a moderator role for perceived control, and that smoking cessation interventions should always include a control-building component. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)

 

The relationship between craving and tobacco use behavior in laboratory studies: A meta-analysis.Open in a New Window

Published laboratory studies from the last 50 years that included measures of craving and tobacco-consumption or tobacco-seeking measures were included in a meta-analysis in order to assess the relationship between craving and tobacco use. Seeking measures were further subdivided into those that reflected control by nonautomatic and automatic cognitive processes. Of 2,498 articles identified by the initial literature review, 204 analyses from 50 studies were deemed eligible. Overall, the relationship between craving and outcome behaviors was modest (r = .20, p < .001). Studies that imposed abstinence during data collection showed a stronger relationship between craving and outcome (r = .24, p < .001) than studies that did not (r = .18, p < .001). Further, of those studies that reported dependence, the overall association between craving and outcome was stronger for smokers who were less dependent. Separate meta-analyses revealed that the type of outcome measure moderated the omnibus effect, with the relationship between craving and nonautomatic seeking measures (r = .34, p < .001) being stronger than the relationship between craving and automatic seeking/consumption measures (both rs = 0.15, p < .001). These findings suggest that craving may play a role in, but does not fully account for, tobacco-use behaviors; furthermore, the extent to which craving predicts behavior may be increased when the behavior is under nonautomatic cognitive control. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)

 

Test of a potential causal influence of earlier age of gambling initiation on gambling involvement and disorder: A multilevel discordant twin design.Open in a New Window

The premise that an association between an earlier age of gambling initiation and the later development of disordered gambling is causal has not yet been empirically examined. The current study used a multilevel discordant twin design to examine the nature of this association. Participants were 3,546 same-sex twins (mean age = 37.7 years) from the Australian Twin Registry who completed a telephone interview that included an extensive assessment of gambling and related behaviors. Multilevel models were employed to estimate individual (within-twin-pair comparison) and family level (between-twin-pair comparison) effects, as well as the cross-level interaction between these effects. Family-level effects (genetic or environmental factors shared by family members) of age of gambling initiation robustly predicted later adult gambling frequency and disorder; the evidence for individual-level effects (unique factors not shared by family members, including a potentially causal effect of earlier age of gambling onset) was less robust. The results of this study suggest that the relation between earlier age of gambling initiation and later gambling involvement and disorder is primarily noncausal; efforts to delay the onset of gambling among young people may not necessarily reduce the number who later go on to develop gambling-related problems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)

 

Gambling disorder: Estimated prevalence rates and risk factors in Macao.Open in a New Window

An excessive, problematic gambling pattern has been regarded as a mental disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM) for more than 3 decades (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 1980). In this study, its latest prevalence in Macao (one of very few cities with legalized gambling in China and the Far East) was estimated with 2 major changes in the diagnostic criteria, suggested by the 5th edition of DSM (APA, 2013): (a) removing the “Illegal Act” criterion, and (b) lowering the threshold for diagnosis. A random, representative sample of 1,018 Macao residents was surveyed with a phone poll design in January 2013. After the 2 changes were adopted, the present study showed that the estimated prevalence rate of gambling disorder was 2.1% of the Macao adult population. Moreover, the present findings also provided empirical support to the application of these 2 recommended changes when assessing symptoms of gambling disorder among Chinese community adults. Personal risk factors of gambling disorder, namely being male, having low education, a preference for casino gambling, as well as high materialism, were identified. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)

 

Personality and gambling involvement: A person-centered approach.Open in a New Window

Individual differences in personality are likely to play an important role in explaining the propensity to gamble. One of the potential roadblocks to elucidating the relation between personality and gambling may be inadequately accounting for the diversity of gambling activities. The goal of the present study was to provide a comprehensive and nuanced portrait of the relation between personality and gambling by taking a multivariate approach to the co-use of multiple gambling activities and employing a broad inventory of potentially relevant personality dimensions. Participants were 4,669 individuals from a national Australian twin registry. Structured interviews including an extensive assessment of gambling behaviors were conducted, and personality questionnaires that included the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire, the Sensation Seeking Scale, and the Magical Ideation Scale were completed. A latent class analysis of past-year involvement in 10 different gambling activities was performed to classify the participants into 5 groups. Unique personality configurations characterized the 3 more gambling-involved latent classes: (a) low behavioral control in the context of high negative emotionality and magical thinking typified extensive, versatile gamblers at high risk of gambling problems; (b) average behavioral control in the context of high negative emotionality and magical thinking typified those who primarily gambled on non-strategic games of chance; (c) low behavioral control in the context of high positive emotionality and low magical ideation typified those who primarily gambled on strategic games of skill. This study illustrates the value of using a multivariate person-centered approach for characterizing the personality correlates of the multifaceted phenomenon that is gambling. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)

 

Bidirectional relationships between client and counselor speech: The importance of reframing.Open in a New Window

In the study of motivational interviewing (MI), counselor skill has been posited to influence client language about change or “change talk.” This study investigates the relationship between a specific counselor behavior, valenced reflective listening, and client change talk in a MI intervention with substance-using adolescents. A combination of recorded in-person and telephone (n = 223) sessions were sequentially coded using the Motivational Interviewing Skill Code 2.5. Reflections were categorized by valence, meaning they included content that was either moving toward (i.e., positive reflection) or away from change (i.e., negative reflection). Client language was coded as either moving toward change, away from change, or neutral about change. Probability analyses showed positive reflections were 11 times more likely to be followed by change talk and 71% less likely to be followed by counter change talk. Negative reflections were 19 times more likely to be followed by counter change talk and 65% less likely to be followed by change talk. Client language was also predictive of counselor reflections, such that positive reflections were 10 times more likely to occur after client change talk and negative reflections were 19 times more likely to follow counter change talk. Because the percentage of change talk expressed in a session has been shown to be positively related to improved behavioral outcomes, counselors should avoid unintentional reflections of counter change talk and use reframing techniques to change the valence of client change language. Implications for MI practice and training are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)

 

Self-efficacy and social networks after treatment for alcohol or drug dependence and major depression: Disentangling person and time-level effects.Open in a New Window

Proximal personal and environmental factors typically predict outcomes of treatment for alcohol or drug dependence (AODD), but longitudinal treatment studies have rarely examined these factors in adults with co-occurring psychiatric disorders. In adults with AODD and major depression, the aims of this study were to: (a) disaggregate person-and time-level components of network substance use and self-efficacy, (b) examine their prospective effects on posttreatment alcohol/drug use, and (c) examine whether residential environment moderated relations between these proximal factors and substance use outcomes. Veterans (N = 201) enrolled in a trial of group psychotherapy for AODD and independent MDD completed assessments every 3 months during 1 year of posttreatment follow-up. Outcome variables were percent days drinking (PDD) and using drugs (PDDRG). Proximal variables included abstinence self-efficacy and social network drinking and drug use. Self-efficacy and network substance use at the person-level prospectively predicted PDD (ps < .05) and PDDRG (ps < .05). Within-person, time-level effects of social networks predicted future PDD (ps < .05) but not PDDRG. Controlled environments moderated person-level social network effects (ps < .05), such that greater time in controlled settings attenuated the association between a heavier drinking/using network and posttreatment drinking and drug use. Both individual differences and time-specific fluctuations in proximal targets of psychosocial interventions are related to posttreatment substance use in adults with co-occurring AODD and MDD. More structured environmental settings appear to alleviate risk associated with social network substance use, and may be especially advised for those who have greater difficulty altering social networks during outpatient treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)

 

The perfectionism model of binge eating: Testing unique contributions, mediating mechanisms, and cross-cultural similarities using a daily diary methodology.Open in a New Window

The perfectionism model of binge eating (PMOBE) is an integrative model explaining the link between perfectionism and binge eating. This model proposes socially prescribed perfectionism confers risk for binge eating by generating exposure to 4 putative binge triggers: interpersonal discrepancies, low interpersonal esteem, depressive affect, and dietary restraint. The present study addresses important gaps in knowledge by testing if these 4 binge triggers uniquely predict changes in binge eating on a daily basis and if daily variations in each binge trigger mediate the link between socially prescribed perfectionism and daily binge eating. Analyses also tested if proposed mediational models generalized across Asian and European Canadians. The PMOBE was tested in 566 undergraduate women using a 7-day daily diary methodology. Depressive affect predicted binge eating, whereas anxious affect did not. Each binge trigger uniquely contributed to binge eating on a daily basis. All binge triggers except for dietary restraint mediated the relationship between socially prescribed perfectionism and change in daily binge eating. Results suggested cross-cultural similarities, with the PMOBE applying to both Asian and European Canadian women. The present study advances understanding of the personality traits and the contextual conditions accompanying binge eating and provides an important step toward improving treatments for people suffering from eating binges and associated negative consequences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)

 

Drinking consequences and subsequent drinking in college students over 4 years.Open in a New Window

There is some evidence that college student drinkers may continue drinking in the face of adverse consequences. We examined 2 hypotheses: (a) that this seemingly pathological behavior is a phenomenon of university life, occurring with consistency throughout the entirety of college, and (b) that individuals accumulate these consequences over multiple semesters in college. A sample of 3,720 students from a large Midwestern university was asked to complete surveys the summer before college and every semester thereafter for 4 years. Results showed that certain drinking-related consequences (e.g., blackouts, regretted sexual experiences) consistently predicted continued frequent heavy drinking in the following semester, even after controlling for sex, race, age, and previous-semester frequent heavy drinking (range of odds ratio = 1.17 to 1.45 across semesters, p < .01). Such potent consequences may predict subsequent drinking for a number of possible reasons that may be examined and addressed as they would pertain to specific protective behavioral strategy-related and cognitive interventions. Furthermore, consequences were accumulated over multiple semesters by notable proportions of students. For example, 13.8% of students reported blacking out 5 time-points or more—describing a full half or more of their college careers. Experimental studies which aim to modify students’ perceptions of norms associated with these consequences may aid in developing interventions to reduce the burden of harm to students. In the broader context, and given the prevalence of students’ accumulation of consequences, future study might aim to determine how and in what ways these findings describe either pathological or normative processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)

 

Dynamic associations among alcohol use and anxiety symptoms in early adolescence.Open in a New Window

The relationship between anxiety and alcohol use in adolescence remains unclear, with evidence for no association and for risk and protective effects of anxiety. Considering developmental trajectories may be important for understanding the association between anxiety and alcohol use and may help clarify prior mixed findings. The present study examined trajectories of alcohol use, social anxiety symptoms, and general anxiety symptoms in early to middle adolescence through the use of univariate and parallel process growth models. Social anxiety and general anxiety symptoms declined, while alcohol use increased with age. Parallel process growth models suggested that less rapid declines in social anxiety and general anxiety symptoms were associated with more rapid escalation in alcohol use. These results suggest that young adolescents who do not show normative declines in social anxiety or general anxiety symptoms may be at risk for more rapid increases in alcohol use. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)

 

A behavioral economic analysis of the effect of next-day responsibilities on drinking.Open in a New Window

Approximately 37% of college students report heavy episodic drinking (5 or more drinks in an occasion for men and 4 or more for women) in the past month. This pattern of drinking is often associated with high blood alcohol levels, accidents, injuries, and negative social and academic outcomes. There is a need for novel theoretical approaches to guide prevention efforts. Behavioral economics emphasizes the role of contextual determinants, such as drink price and the presence and amount of alternative reinforcement as determinants of drinking levels and has received strong empirical support in basic laboratory research. This translational research study used a hypothetical behavioral economic measure to investigate the impact of a variety of next-day responsibilities on night-before drinking intentions in a sample of first-year college students (N = 80; 50% female) who reported recent heavy episodic drinking. Drinking estimates were significantly lower in all of the responsibility conditions relative to the no-responsibility condition; internships were associated with the greatest reduction (drm = 1.72), and earlier class times were associated with greater reductions in drinking intentions (drm range = 1.22–1.35) than later class times (drm range = 0.83–1.00). These results suggest that increasing morning responsibilities should be further investigated as a potential strategy to reduce drinking in college students. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)

 

Examining the affective tone of alcohol craving in young drinkers.Open in a New Window

An abundance of research has examined craving and affective responses to alcohol; however, minimal emphasis has been placed on the relationship between craving and affective states at specific time points of alcohol consumption. Fifty-nine university students (28 light drinkers, 31 heavy drinkers) completed assessments of craving, and positive and negative affect at baseline (Time 1), immediately following consumption of a standard drink of alcohol (Time 2), and 20 min post consumption (Time 3). In light drinkers, craving was positively correlated with positive affect at all 3 time points. In heavy drinkers, craving was only correlated with positive affect at Time 2. There were no associations between craving and negative affect at any time point in either group. A subsequent profile analysis revealed parallel profiles of craving and positive affect over time in light drinkers, but not heavy drinkers. At 20 min post alcohol consumption, a moderated regression showed that the relationship between craving and positive affect weakened as level of alcohol use increased. These findings suggest that craving is positively associated with positive affect in light drinkers, but as levels of drinking escalate, this association dissipates. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)

 

Do students mandated to intervention for campus alcohol-related violations drink more than nonmandated students?Open in a New Window

It is often assumed that “mandated students” (i.e., those who violate campus alcohol policies and are mandated to receive an alcohol intervention) drink more than students from the general population. To test this assumption empirically, we compared alcohol-use levels of a sample of students mandated for alcohol violations (n = 435) with a representative sample of nonmandated students from the same university (n = 1,876). As expected, mandated students were more likely to be male, younger, first-year students, and living in on-campus dorms, and they reported poorer academic performance (i.e., grade point averages). With respect to alcohol use, after controlling for demographic differences, they reported more drinks per week than those in the general university sample but they did not report drinking heavily more frequently than nonmandated students. Within the mandated student sample, there was considerable variability in drinking level; that is, the frequency of heavy drinking covered the full range from never to 10+ times in the past month, and there was a larger standard deviation for drinks per week among mandated students than among those in the general sample. These results challenge the assumption that mandated students drink heavily more often but do provide empirical support for the assumption that students who violate alcohol policies drink at higher quantities, justifying the need for an alcohol use reduction intervention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)

 

Perceived physical availability of alcohol at work and workplace alcohol use and impairment: Testing a structural model.Open in a New Window

[Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 29(1) of Psychology of Addictive Behaviors (see record 2015-13745-003). There are several mistakes in the text and tables, which are given in the erratum. The online version of this article has been corrected.] This study develops and tests a new conceptual model of perceived physical availability of alcohol at work that provides unique insight into 3 dimensions of workplace physical availability of alcohol and their direct and indirect relations to workplace alcohol use and impairment. Data were obtained from a national probability sample of 2,727 U.S. workers. The results support the proposed conceptual model and provide empirical support for a positive relation of perceived physical availability of alcohol at work to workplace alcohol use and 2 dimensions of workplace impairment (workplace intoxication and workplace hangover). Ultimately, the findings suggest that perceived physical availability of alcohol at work is a risk factor for alcohol use and impairment during the workday, and that this relation is more complex than previously hypothesized. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)

 

Alcohol consumption in relation to residence status and ethnicity in college students.Open in a New Window

The present study examined the roles of gender, ethnicity, and residence status in an ethnically diverse sample of undergraduate students who completed the Core Alcohol and Drug Survey. Gender, ethnicity, and residential status were associated with likelihood of binge drinking among students who reported consuming alcohol (non-Hispanic). White students were more likely to report using alcohol than Black students and Asian students. Ethnicity moderated the effects of both residence status and gender on alcohol consumption. Living with one’s parents was associated with a lower likelihood of reported alcohol use among Hispanic students, but not among (non-Hispanic) White students. Hispanic women were more likely to report using alcohol than were Hispanic men, but no gender difference in likelihood of alcohol consumption was found among (non-Hispanic) White students. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)

 

Anxiety sensitivity as a moderator of the relationship between trait anxiety and illicit substance use.Open in a New Window

Anxiety and substance use problems are common and often comorbid, and past research has shown that young adults in particular are especially at risk for developing these disorders. To further delineate the relationship between anxiety and substance use, the current study evaluated anxiety sensitivity (AS)—a cognitive vulnerability factor—as a moderator of the association between trait anxiety and illicit substance use in a large sample of young adults (N = 845; M = 18.7 years, SD = 1.0). It was hypothesized that AS would moderate the association between trait anxiety and illicit substance use, such that trait anxiety would significantly predict illicit substance use among those with high, but not low, AS. Consistent with prediction, a significant trait Anxiety × AS interaction was found, χ²(5) = 29.38, p < .001. Specifically, analyses of simple slopes revealed that for the high-AS group, as trait anxiety increased, so did frequency of illicit substance use (odds ratio [OR] = 1.03, p = .005; 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.01, 1.06]). The slope for the low AS was not significant (OR = 0.98, p = .100; 95% CI [0.95, 1.01]). Results also showed significant moderation effects for the AS physical concerns and cognitive concerns facets but not AS social concerns. These findings suggest that AS may be an important cognitive vulnerability that may help to identify those at particular risk for substance use, and that interventions should target AS reduction in anxiety-prone individuals to reduce and prevent substance abuse. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)

 

Development and validation of the Opioid Prescription Medication Motives Questionnaire: A four-factor model of reasons for use.Open in a New Window

There is considerable evidence that understanding reasons for using substances is important for understanding patterns of use and related consequences as well as for developing assessment and intervention strategies. Despite increases in prescription opioid use and related problems (e.g., overdose deaths), a comprehensive measure of prescription opioid motives has yet to be developed. As such, the current study sought to develop and provide validation evidence for a measure of prescription opioid motives. One hundred eleven male and 226 female undergraduate students completed an initial pool of motive items based on the current literature and measures of prescription opioid use and related problems. Confirmatory factor analysis results demonstrated that the predicted 4-factor model provided a good fit to the data. The 4 motives—pain, social, enhancement, and coping—each showed differential patterns of associations with prescription opioid-related contextual and use variables. Enhancement motives were associated with quantity of use (past 3 months and maximum use in 1 day), frequency of use, in multiple contexts, misuse, and related problems. Coping motives demonstrated relations with maximum pills (in 1 day), frequency of use, and prescription opioid misuse, consequences, and dependence features. For social motives, significant associations were found with frequency of use (in past 3 months), typical number of pills (in 1 day), dependence features, and use both on weekdays and on weekends; this motive had a negative association with maximum number of pills taken in 1 day. Pain motives were largely related to frequency of use (in past 3 months), consequencess, and dependence features. The present study is the first to present an empirical measure of prescription opioid motives and demonstrates how these motives have important implications for understanding patterns of prescription opioid use and related problems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)

 

Using motives for smoking to distinguish between different college student smoker typologies.Open in a New Window

Relatively little is known about how to categorize different types of smokers, especially occasional smokers. Because of the prevalence of occasional smoking among college students, the current study aimed to gain an understanding of the different typologies of smokers on campus. To accomplish this, a latent class analysis (LCA) was conducted using 17 motives for smoking items (N = 327). The LCA revealed that four smoker groups were present: (1) addicted smokers who endorsed smoking due to pleasure and habit/addiction; (2) stress smokers, who endorsed smoking to relax, to reduce levels of stress, and to regulate mood; (3) social smokers, who endorsed smoking because of social factors such as to fit in or because friends smoke; and (4) nonendorsing smokers, who had a low endorsement for all the items. An additional LCA with covariates revealed that age of initiation, current smoking patterns, smoker self-classification, and quit likelihood differentiated these groups of smokers whereas current age and alcohol use did not. These typologies should be considered when designing interventions for occasional smokers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)

 

Psychometric evaluation of the Gambling Self-Efficacy Questionnaire with treatment-seeking pathological gamblers.Open in a New Window

Gambling-related self-efficacy has been shown to correspond with treatment success and maintenance of treatment gains. Accordingly, there is a need for gambling assessment measures that have been validated with treatment-seeking individuals. In this study, we reported on the evaluation of a measure of perceived self-efficacy to control gambling behavior in high-risk relapse situations, the Gambling Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (GSEQ; May, Whelan, Steenbergh, & Meyers, 2003). Confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses provided some support for the original single-factor solutions, but also suggested the presence of individual patterns of self-efficacy across high-risk situations. The GSEQ demonstrated convergence with indices of problem-gambling severity and scores on the measure significantly increased across a brief cognitive–behavioral intervention. The sensitivity and specificity were evaluated and the findings supported that an average self-efficacy rating of 70% corresponded with indices of pathological gambling. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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