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APA Journal: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors

Priming effects of self-reported drinking and religiosity.Open in a New Window

Research has revealed negative associations between religiosity and alcohol consumption. Given these associations, the aim of the current research was to evaluate whether the order of assessing each construct might affect subsequent reports of the other. The present research provided an experimental evaluation of response biases of self-reported religiosity and alcohol consumption based on order of assessment. Participants (N = 301 undergraduate students) completed an online survey. Based on random assignment, religiosity was assessed either before or after questions regarding recent alcohol consumption. Social desirability bias was also measured. Results revealed a priming effect such that participants who answered questions about their religiosity prior to their alcohol consumption reported fewer drinks on their peak drinking occasions, drinking less on typical occasions, and drinking less frequently, even when controlling for social desirability and for the significant negative associations between their own religiosity and drinking. In contrast, assessment order was not significantly associated with religiosity. Results indicate priming religion results in reporting lower, but potentially more accurate, levels of health risk behaviors and that these effects are not simply the result of socially desirable responding. Results are interpreted utilizing several social–cognitive theories and suggest that retrospective self-reports of drinking may be more malleable than self-descriptions of religiosity. Implications and future directions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)

 

The effects of alcohol, emotion regulation, and emotional arousal on the dating aggression intentions of men and women.Open in a New Window

Verbal and physical dating aggression is prevalent among college-aged men and women, especially a pattern of mutual aggression in which both partners engage in aggression. Alcohol intoxication and anger arousal have been implicated in the occurrence of aggression, and the ability to regulate one’s emotions may interact with both alcohol intoxication and emotional arousal to predict dating aggression. The current study is the first known experimental investigation to examine the effects of alcohol intoxication, alcohol expectancies, emotion regulation, and emotional arousal on dating aggression. Participants were randomized to receive alcohol (n = 48), placebo (n = 48), or no alcohol (n = 48). Intoxicated men and women expressed more verbal and physical aggression intentions than those in the no-alcohol condition, and individuals in the placebo condition did not significantly differ from those in the alcohol and no-alcohol conditions. These results suggest that the pharmacological effects of alcohol were important to the occurrence of dating aggression, whereas the effects of expectancy are less clear. Among those less able to engage in cognitive reappraisal, individuals who consumed or believed they consumed alcohol expressed more verbal and physical aggression intentions than those who received no alcohol. Those with higher arousal who were better able to suppress their emotions expressed fewer verbal and physical aggression intentions than those with lower arousal. In addition to reducing alcohol consumption, interventions for dating aggression might incorporate emotion regulation skills, with a focus on understanding the circumstances in which cognitive reappraisal and emotion suppression are relatively more effective. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)

 

Direct and indirect effects of alcohol expectancies on alcohol-related problems.Open in a New Window

This study investigates pathways from alcohol outcome expectancies to alcohol-related problems (ARPs), considering alcohol volume and episodic heavy drinking (EHD) as potential mediators. It is further examined whether these pathways vary by age. The population-based sample comprised 6,823 individuals aged 18 to 64 years reporting alcohol use in the past year. Direct and indirect effects of five alcohol expectancies (social assertiveness, tension reduction, sexual enhancement, cognitive impairment, aggression) and alcohol use (average daily intake, EHD) on a latent measure of ARPs (six items of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test) were investigated. A multiple-group structural equation model with three age groups (18 to 24, 25 to 44, 45 to 64 years) was examined. In individuals aged 18 to 24 years, social assertiveness expectancies were positively associated with average intake and EHD, which in turn were associated with more ARPs. In addition, expectancies related to cognitive impairment and aggression were directly linked to more ARPs without mediation in this age group. In individuals aged 25 years and older, tension reduction expectancies were associated with more ARPs through increased average intake. In contrast, high scores on cognitive impairment were associated with lower average intake and in turn with fewer ARPs. Challenging expectancies of sociability in young and expectancies of relaxation in mid adulthood might help decrease high-risk drinking and subsequently ARPs. Considering negative alcohol expectancies may help to identify younger individuals at high risk for ARPs, even if they have not previously exhibited repeated excessive drinking. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)

 

What are other parents saying? Perceived parental communication norms and the relationship between alcohol-specific parental communication and college student drinking.Open in a New Window

This study examined parents’ normative perceptions of other college parents’ alcohol-specific communication, and how parents’ perceived communication norms and alcohol-specific communication relate to student drinking outcomes. A sample of 457 student–parent dyads were recruited from a midsize university. Students completed Web-based assessments of alcohol-related attitudes and behaviors. Parents completed alcohol-specific measures of communication norms and parent–child communication, including communication content (i.e., targeted communication) and frequency of communication. Results indicated that parents overestimated how much other parents talked to their college students about the frequency and quantity of alcohol use, but underestimated how often parents initiated conversations about alcohol. In a path model, perceived communication norms positively predicted both targeted communication and frequency of communication. Perceived communication norms and targeted communication negatively predicted students’ attitude toward alcohol use. In contrast, more frequent communication predicted students holding more approving attitudes toward alcohol. The relationship between parents’ perceived communication norms and students’ drinking behaviors was mediated by the parental communication variables and student attitudes. Tests of indirect effects were undertaken to examine meditational processes. The findings underscore relations involving parental perceived communication norms and parents’ own alcohol communication and their children’s drinking outcomes. The complex relationships of different types of parental communication and student outcomes warrant further research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)

 

Gender differences in relationships among PTSD severity, drinking motives, and alcohol use in a comorbid alcohol dependence and PTSD sample.Open in a New Window

Alcohol dependence (AD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are highly prevalent and comorbid conditions associated with a significant level of impairment. Little systematic study has focused on gender differences specific to individuals with both AD and PTSD. The current study examined gender-specific associations between PTSD symptom severity, drinking to cope (i.e., reduce negative affect), drinking for enhancement (i.e., increase positive affect), and average alcohol use in a clinical sample of men (n = 46) and women (n = 46) with comorbid AD and PTSD. Results indicated that PTSD symptoms were highly associated with drinking-to-cope motives for both men and women, but with greater drinking for enhancement motives for men only. Enhancement motives were positively associated with average alcohol quantity for both men and women, but coping motives were significantly associated with average alcohol quantity for women only. These findings suggest that for individuals with comorbid AD and PTSD, interventions that focus on reducing PTSD symptoms are likely to lower coping motives for both genders, and targeting coping motives is likely to result in decreased drinking for women but not for men, whereas targeting enhancement motives is likely to lead to reduced drinking for both genders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)

 

Differential trajectories of alcohol-related behaviors across the first year of college by parenting profiles.Open in a New Window

This study examined the extent to which profiles of perceived parenting are associated with trajectories of alcohol-related behaviors across the first year of college. Participants were surveyed five times from the summer before college to the fall of the second year. A total 285 college students were enrolled from the incoming classes of consecutive cohorts of students at a large, public university in the Northeastern United States. At baseline, participants provided information on their parents’ alcohol-related behaviors (e.g., parental modeling of use; perceived approval of underage use) and parenting characteristics (e.g., parental monitoring; parent–child relationship quality). Students also reported on their personal alcohol-related behaviors at each time point. Latent profile analysis was used to identify four subgroups based on the set of parenting characteristics: High Quality (14%) – highest parent–teen relationship quality; High Monitoring (31%) – highest parental monitoring and knowledge; Low Involvement (30%) – poor relationship quality, little monitoring and communication; and Pro-Alcohol (21%) – highest parental modeling and approval. Students were then assigned to profiles, and their alcohol-related behaviors were examined longitudinally using latent growth curve modeling. In general, students in the Pro-Alcohol profile displayed the highest baseline levels of typical weekend drinking, heavy episodic drinking, and peak blood alcohol content, in addition to showing steeper increases in typical weekend drinking across the first year of college. Results support the notion that parental behaviors remain relevant across the first year of college. Differential alcohol-related behaviors across parenting profiles highlight the potential for tailored college intervention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)

 

Proximal relationships between PTSD symptoms and drinking among female college students: Results from a daily monitoring study.Open in a New Window

Self-medication has been theorized to explain comorbidity between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and drinking, whereupon problem drinking develops in order to modulate negative affect and ameliorate PTSD symptoms. Daily monitoring methodologies may help refine our understanding of proximal relations between PTSD, affect, and alcohol use. One hundred thirty-six female college drinkers with a past history of sexual victimization and 38 female college drinkers with no past trauma history completed electronic monitoring of PTSD symptoms, affect, alcohol use, and alcohol cravings, daily for 4 weeks. A two-part mixed hurdle model was used to examine likelihood of drinking and amount of alcohol consumed on drinking days. We found significant relationships between daily PTSD symptoms, affect, and drinking. On days women experienced more intrusive and behavioral avoidance symptoms of PTSD, they experienced stronger urges to drink and were more likely to drink on that day. On days in which women experienced more negative affect than their average, they experienced stronger urges to drink, whereas on days in which women experienced more of the dysphoric symptoms associated with PTSD than their average, they drank less. On days with higher positive affect, women reported stronger urges to drink and were more likely to drink. Results suggest the need to examine both aspects of affect and specific PTSD symptoms as they may differentially predict drinking behavior. Differences in the ways in which PTSD symptoms and affect influence drinking suggest that interventions more specifically address the function of drinking behaviors in reducing alcohol use among college women. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)

 

The comparative effectiveness of individual and group brief motivational interventions for mandated college students.Open in a New Window

Individual brief motivational intervention (iBMI) is an efficacious strategy to reduce heavy drinking by students who are mandated to receive an alcohol intervention following an alcohol-related event. However, despite the strong empirical support for iBMI, it is unknown if the results from rigorously controlled research on iBMI translate to real-world settings. Furthermore, many colleges lack the resources to provide iBMI to mandated students. Therefore, group-delivered BMI (gBMI) might be a cost-effective alternative that can be delivered to a large number of individuals. The purpose of this study was to conduct a comparative effectiveness evaluation of iBMI and gBMI as delivered by staff at a university health services center. Participants (N = 278) were college students who were mandated to receive an alcohol intervention following an alcohol-related incident. Participants were randomized to receive an individual (iBMI; n = 133) or a Group BMI (gBMI; n = 145). Results indicated that both iBMI and gBMI participants reduced their peak estimated blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and the number of negative alcohol-related consequences at 1-, 3-, and 6-months postintervention. The iBMI and gBMI conditions were not significantly different at follow-up. These findings provide preliminary support for the use of iBMI and gBMIs for college students in real-world settings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)

 

Alcohol cues, approach bias, and inhibitory control: Applying a dual process model of addiction to alcohol sensitivity.Open in a New Window

Low sensitivity to the acute effects of alcohol is a risk factor for heavy drinking and related problems. However, little research has tested process explanations for such effects. The current study tested the hypothesis that low sensitivity is associated with automatic approach biases for alcohol cues, coupled with deficits inhibiting responses in the presence of such cues. Eighty-five participants varying in alcohol sensitivity completed an Alcohol-Approach Avoidance Task and a Cued Go/No-Go Task while event-related potentials were recorded. Low sensitivity (LS) individuals showed evidence of automatic approach tendencies toward alcohol cues in both tasks, and experienced deficits inhibiting prepotent responses cued by alcohol images. Additionally, the event-related potential data indicated that LS individuals experienced more conflict when attempting to inhibit alcohol-cued responses, but not nonalcohol-cued responses, compared with their high-sensitivity counterparts. Together, these data indicate that alcohol cues elicit an approach bias among LS individuals, translating into greater difficulty inhibiting behavioral responses in the presence of such cues, a pattern generally supportive of dual process models of substance use. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)

 

Are all alcohol and energy drink users the same? Examining individual variation in relation to alcohol mixed with energy drink use, risky drinking, and consequences.Open in a New Window

Individuals who consume alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmEDs) have been identified as higher-risk drinkers, as they are more prone to drink increased amounts of alcohol and experience more consequences compared with non-AmED users. The present study examined differential AmED use and alcohol consumption simultaneously as multidimensional risk behaviors among AmED users. Students who identified as drinkers and current AmED users (n = 195) completed a Web-based survey related to their AmED consumption and typical drinking patterns. Latent profile analysis was used to classify participants into distinct AmED user profiles. Profiles were then compared on AmED-based cognitive factors (e.g., expectancies, norms) and alcohol-related consequences. Four AmED user profiles emerged: moderate drinker, low proportion AmED users (ML); heavy drinker, low proportion AmED users (HL); moderate drinker, high proportion AmED users (MH); and heavy drinker, high proportion AmED users (HH). Membership in higher-proportion AmED groups was associated with more positive AmED expectancies and perceived norms. No significant differences were observed in the amount of consequences endorsed by HL and HHs; however, MHs experienced significantly more alcohol-related physical consequences than MLs. This suggests that increased use of AmEDs is associated with increased risk of experiencing alcohol-related consequences for moderate drinkers. Screening students for AmED use could be used as a novel, inexpensive tool to identify high-risk drinkers for targeted interventions aimed at reducing alcohol consumption and related problems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)

 

Alcohol-related memory associations in positive and negative affect situations: Drinking motives, working memory capacity, and prospective drinking.Open in a New Window

[Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 28(1) of Psychology of Addictive Behaviors (see record 2014-12693-004). There was an error in the last sentence of the Materials section. The correct sentence is provided.] Although studies on explicit alcohol cognitions have identified positive and negative reinforcing drinking motives that are differentially related to drinking indices, such a distinction has received less attention in studies on implicit cognitions. An alcohol-related Word–Sentence Association Task was used to assess implicit alcohol-related memory associations in positive and negative affect situations in 92 participants. Results revealed that enhancement motives were specifically associated with the endorsement of alcohol words in positive affect situations and coping motives were associated with the endorsement of alcohol words in negative affect situations. Furthermore, alcohol associations in positive affect situations predicted prospective alcohol use and number of binges, depending on levels of working memory capacity. The current findings shed more light on the underpinnings of alcohol use and suggest that implicit memory processes and working memory capacity might be important targets for intervention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)

 

Does negative affect mediate the relationship between daily PTSD symptoms and daily alcohol involvement in female rape victims? Evidence from 14 days of interactive voice response assessment.Open in a New Window

The negative reinforcement model of addiction posits that individuals may use alcohol to reduce negative affective (NA) distress. The current study investigated the mediating effect of daily NA on the relationship between daily PTSD symptoms and same-day and next-day alcohol involvement (consumption and desire to drink) in a sample of 54 non-treatment-seeking female rape victims who completed 14 days of interactive voice response assessment. The moderating effect of lifetime alcohol use disorder diagnosis (AUD) on daily relationships was also examined. Multilevel models suggested that NA mediated the relationship between PTSD and same-day, but not next-day alcohol involvement. NA was greater on days characterized by more severe PTSD symptoms, and alcohol consumption and desire to drink were greater on days characterized by higher NA. Furthermore, daily PTSD symptoms and NA were more strongly associated with same-day (but not next-day) alcohol consumption and desire to drink for women with an AUD than without. Results suggest that NA plays an important role in female rape victims’ daily alcohol use. Differences between women with and without an AUD indicate the need for treatment matching to subtypes of female rape victims. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)

 

A daily process examination of the temporal association between alcohol use and verbal and physical aggression in community couples.Open in a New Window

Alcohol use has been associated with intimate partner aggression perpetration and victimization; however, much of the evidence is based on survey research. Few studies have addressed the proximal effects of drinking episodes on the subsequent occurrence of partner aggression. The current study used daily diary methodology to consider the daily and temporal association between drinking episodes and episodes of partner verbal and physical aggression among a community sample of married and cohabiting couples (N = 118). Male and female partners each provided 56 days of independent daily reports of drinking and partner conflict episodes, including verbal and physical aggression, using interactive voice response technology. Dyadic data analyses, guided by the actor-partner interdependence model, were conducted using hierarchical generalized linear modeling with multivariate outcomes. Daily analyses revealed that alcohol consumption was associated with perpetration of verbal and physical aggression the same day, but not with victimization. Temporal analyses revealed that the likelihood of perpetrating verbal and physical aggression, and the likelihood of being verbally and physically victimized, increased significantly when alcohol was consumed in the previous four hours. Findings did not differ according to gender of perpetrator or victim, and the interaction between perpetrator and victim’s alcohol use was not significant in any analysis. The study provides clear evidence that, within a sample of community couples without substance-use disorders or other psychopathology, alcohol consumption by men and women contributes to the occurrence of partner aggression episodes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)

 

Externalizing behavior problems among polydrug cocaine-exposed children: Indirect pathways via maternal harshness and self-regulation in early childhood.Open in a New Window

This study examined direct and indirect associations between prenatal cocaine exposure (CE) and children’s externalizing problems in kindergarten via higher maternal harshness and lower self-regulation in early childhood. Other environmental risk variables, such as child exposure to community violence and experience of hunger, were used as additional predictors. The sample consisted of 216 mother−infant dyads recruited at delivery from local area hospitals (116 cocaine-exposed, 100 nonexposed). Maternal harshness was coded from observations of mother−toddler interactions at 2 years of age, and children’s self-regulation was measured at 3 years of age using several laboratory paradigms. Maternal reports of externalizing behavior problems were obtained at both time points and at kindergarten. Teacher reports were obtained and classroom observations of externalizing behaviors were conducted in the kindergarten classroom. Results indicated significant indirect associations between CE and maternal reports of externalizing problems via higher maternal harshness at 2 years and higher externalizing problems at 3 years of child age. A second indirect path from CE to externalizing problems in the school setting via higher maternal harshness at 2 years and lower self-regulation at 3 years was also significant. There were significant associations between community violence exposure and maternal reports of externalizing problems, and between hunger and externalizing problems in the school setting. Results highlight the role of parenting and self-regulation in early childhood as critical process variables in the indirect association between CE and externalizing behavior problems in kindergarten. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)

 

Reliability of the Timeline Followback for cocaine, cannabis, and cigarette use.Open in a New Window

The Timeline Followback (TLFB), a retrospective calendar-based measure of daily substance use, was initially developed to obtain self-reports of alcohol use. Since its inception it has undergone extensive evaluation across diverse populations and is considered the most psychometrically sound self-report measure of drinking. Although the TLFB has been extended to other behaviors, its psychometric evaluation with other addictive behaviors has not been as extensive as for alcohol use. The present study evaluated the test–retest reliability of the TLFB for cocaine, cannabis, and cigarette use for participants recruited from outpatient alcohol and drug treatment programs and the general community across intervals ranging from 30 to 360 days prior to the interview. The dependent measure for cigarette smokers and cannabis users was daily use of cigarettes and joints, respectively, and for cocaine users it was a “Yes” or “No” regarding cocaine use for each day. The TLFB was administered in different formats for different drug types. Different interviewers conducted the two interviews. The TLFB collected highly reliable information about participants’ daily use of cocaine, cannabis, and cigarettes from 30, 90, to 360 days prior to the interview. Findings from this study not only suggest that shorter time intervals (e.g., 90 days) can be used with little loss of accuracy, but also add to the growing literature that the TLFB can be used with confidence to collect psychometrically sound information about substance use (i.e., cocaine, cannabis, cigarettes) other than alcohol in treatment- and nontreatment-seeking populations for intervals from ranging up to 12 months prior to the interview. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)

 

Positive smoking outcome expectancies mediate the relation between alcohol consumption and smoking urge among women during a quit attempt.Open in a New Window

Social learning models of addiction hypothesize that situational factors interact with cognitive determinants to influence a person’s motivation to use substances. Ecological momentary assessment was used to examine the association between alcohol consumption, smoking outcome expectancies, and smoking urge during the first 7 days of a smoking quit attempt. Participants were 113 female smokers who enrolled in a study that tested an individually tailored smoking cessation treatment. Participants carried a palm-top personal computer for 7 days and were instructed to complete 4 random assessments each day and to initiate an assessment when they were tempted to smoke. Multilevel mediational analyses were used to examine (a) the effects of alcohol consumption before time j and positive smoking outcome expectancies at time j on smoking urge at time j + 1 (Model 1) and (b) the effects of alcohol consumption before time j and smoking urge at time j on positive smoking outcome expectancies at time j + 1 (Model 2). Model 1 found a significant effect of alcohol consumption before time j on smoking urge at time j + 1 (p = .04), and this effect was significantly mediated by positive smoking outcome expectancies at time j (p j + 1. The findings suggest that alcohol consumption is significantly associated with increased positive smoking outcome expectancies that, in turn, are associated with increased smoking urge in women seeking to quit smoking. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)

 

Correction to Salemink and Wiers (2013).Open in a New Window

Reports an error in "Alcohol-Related Memory Associations in Positive and Negative Affect Situations: Drinking Motives, Working Memory Capacity, and Prospective Drinking" by Elske Salemink and Reinout W. Wiers (Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, Advanced Online Publication, May 6, 2013, np). There was an error in the last sentence of the Materials section. The correct sentence is provided. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2013-15122-001.) Although studies on explicit alcohol cognitions have identified positive and negative reinforcing drinking motives that are differentially related to drinking indices, such a distinction has received less attention in studies on implicit cognitions. An alcohol-related Word–Sentence Association Task was used to assess implicit alcohol-related memory associations in positive and negative affect situations in 92 participants. Results revealed that enhancement motives were specifically associated with the endorsement of alcohol words in positive affect situations and coping motives were associated with the endorsement of alcohol words in negative affect situations. Furthermore, alcohol associations in positive affect situations predicted prospective alcohol use and number of binges, depending on levels of working memory capacity. The current findings shed more light on the underpinnings of alcohol use and suggest that implicit memory processes and working memory capacity might be important targets for intervention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)

 

The acute tobacco withdrawal syndrome among black smokers.Open in a New Window

Black smokers have greater difficulty quitting tobacco than White smokers, but the mechanisms underlying between-race differences in smoking cessation are not clear. One possibility is that Black smokers experience greater acute withdrawal than Whites. We investigated whether Black (n = 104) and White smokers (n = 99) differed in abstinence-induced changes in self-report, physiological, and cognitive performance measures. Smokers not wishing to quit completed two counterbalanced experimental sessions. Before one session, they abstained from smoking for at least 12 hr. They smoked normally before the other session. Black smokers reported smaller abstinence-induced changes on a number of subjective measures including the total score of the 10-item Questionnaire for Smoking Urges (QSU) and the total score of the Wisconsin Smoking Withdrawal Scale (WSWS). However, on most subjective measures, and on all objective measures, there were no between-race differences in abstinence-induced change scores. Moreover, Black participants did not report lower QSU and WSWS ratings at the abstinent session, but they did experience significantly higher QSU and WSWS ratings at the nonabstinent session. Abstinence-induced changes in subjective, physiological, and cognitive measures in White smokers were similar for smokers of nonflavored and menthol-flavored cigarettes. There was no evidence that Black smokers experienced greater acute tobacco withdrawal than Whites. To the contrary, Black participants experienced smaller abstinence-induced changes in self-reported craving and withdrawal on some measures. Racial differences in smoking cessation are unlikely to be explained by acute withdrawal. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)

 

Associations of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptom dimensions with smoking deprivation effects in adult smokers.Open in a New Window

Identifying relations of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom dimensions to individual facets of the tobacco withdrawal syndrome could elucidate the mechanisms linking ADHD and regular smoking. This study examined the unique relations of inattention (IN) and hyperactivity-impulsivity (HI) symptom dimensions of ADHD to a variety of tobacco withdrawal symptoms. One hundred thirty-two community-dwelling adult smokers recruited without regard to ADHD status completed a self-report measure of ADHD symptoms experienced over the past 6 months at a baseline visit. At two subsequent experimental sessions (one following overnight tobacco deprivation and one nondeprived; order counterbalanced), participants completed measures of tobacco withdrawal symptoms, mood, and desire to smoke. Preliminary analyses showed that higher levels of IN and HI symptoms were both associated with higher levels of negative affect and concentration difficulties during nondeprived (“baseline”) states (ps ps < .01). ADHD symptoms, particularly HI symptoms, are associated with more severe exacerbations in abstinence-induced withdrawal symptoms, which could be an important mechanism of ADHD-smoking comorbidity. These findings suggest the need for clinical studies examining the role of these unique and potentially more severe withdrawal profiles experienced by smokers with high-levels of ADHD symptoms in smoking reinstatement and cessation outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)

 

Smoking abstinence-related expectancies among American Indians, African Americans, and women: Potential mechanisms of tobacco-related disparities.Open in a New Window

Research has documented tobacco-related health disparities by race and gender. Prior research, however, has not examined expectancies about the smoking cessation process (i.e., abstinence-related expectancies) as potential contributors to tobacco-related disparities in special populations. This cross-sectional study compared abstinence-related expectancies between American Indian (n = 87), African American (n = 151), and White (n = 185) smokers, and between women (n = 231) and men (n = 270) smokers. Abstinence-related expectancies also were examined as mediators of race and gender relationships with motivation to quit and abstinence self efficacy. Results indicated that American Indians and African Americans were less likely than Whites to expect withdrawal effects, and more likely to expect that quitting would be unproblematic. African Americans also were less likely than Whites to expect smoking cessation interventions to be effective. Compared with men, women were more likely to expect withdrawal effects and weight gain. These expectancy differences mediated race and gender relationships with motivation to quit and abstinence self-efficacy. Findings emphasize potential mechanisms underlying tobacco-related health disparities among American Indians, African Americans, and women and suggest a number of specific approaches for targeting tobacco dependence interventions to these populations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)

 

Alcohol affects video lottery terminal (VLT) gambling behaviors and cognitions differently.Open in a New Window

People frequently combine alcohol use and gambling. However, our understanding of the effects of alcohol on gambling behavior is limited, both in terms of what the effects are and how they occur. The effects of a moderately intoxicating dose of alcohol (i.e., a blood alcohol concentration of .06g%) on the video lottery terminal (VLT) gambling behaviors and cognitions of community-recruited nonpathological (n = 30) and probable pathological gamblers (n = 30) were compared. Alcohol increased the rate of double up betting (i.e., choosing to play a bonus game, after a winning video poker hand, which involves trying to pick a higher ranked card than the dealer’s card from among 5 face down cards) of probable pathological gamblers, but did not influence their irrational beliefs about VLT play. Alcohol maintained the irrational beliefs about VLT play of nonpathological gamblers, but did not influence their gambling behaviors. Results are consistent with a growing body of research finding that gambling cognitions have an equivocal role in explaining actual gambling behaviors. Potential mechanisms for the observed effects are discussed. Applied implications discussed include: educating regular VLT players about the effects of alcohol on irrational gambling cognitions; reconsidering policies and practices that make alcohol available where machine gambling takes place; and targeting even moderate alcohol use in the treatment of gambling problems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)

 

Mood, motives, and gambling in young adults: An examination of within- and between-person variations using experience sampling.Open in a New Window

It is well established that young adults are a population at risk for problem gambling and that young adults gamble for various reasons, including positive mood enhancement and negative mood reduction. Although these motives have been identified as important proximal predictors of gambling, the research to date has focused on between-subjects relationships. What is missing is a process-level understanding of the specific within-subjects relations between mood-regulation motives for gambling, mood states, and gambling behaviors. The current study used experience sampling to assess the specific link between gambling motives, mood states, and gambling behavior. Participants were 108 young adults (ages 19–24 years), who completed baseline measures of gambling motives and gambling problems and then reported on their mood states and gambling behavior three times a day for 30 days. Multilevel modeling analyses revealed a significant positive moderating effect for enhancement motives on the relationship between positive mood and amount of time spent gambling and number of drinks consumed while gambling. In addition, problem gambling status was associated with consuming fewer drinks while gambling at higher levels of positive mood, and spending more money than intended at higher levels of negative mood. Unexpectedly, there was only one moderating effect for coping motives on the mood-gambling relationship; low coping motivated gamblers consumed more alcohol while gambling at higher levels of positive mood, whereas high coping motivated gamblers did not change their drinking in response to positive mood. The current findings highlight enhancement motives as risky motives for young adult gambling, particularly in the context of positive mood, and suggest that gambling interventions should include strategies to address positive mood management. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)

 

Identifying indicators of harmful and problem gambling in a Canadian sample through receiver operating characteristic analysis.Open in a New Window

Many gamblers would prefer to reduce gambling on their own rather than to adopt an abstinence approach within the context of a gambling treatment program. Yet responsible gambling guidelines lack quantifiable markers to guide gamblers in wagering safely. To address these issues, the current investigation implemented receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis to identify behavioral indicators of harmful and problem gambling. Gambling involvement was assessed in 503 participants (275 psychiatric outpatients and 228 community gamblers) with the Canadian Problem Gambling Index. Overall gambling frequency, duration, and expenditure were able to distinguish harmful and problematic gambling at a moderate level. Indicators of harmful gambling were generated for engagement in specific gambling activities: frequency of tickets and casino; duration of bingo, casino, and investments; and expenditures on bingo, casino, sports betting, games of skill, and investments. Indicators of problem gambling were similarly produced for frequency of tickets and casino, and expenditures on bingo, casino, games of skill, and investments. Logistic regression analyses revealed that overall gambling frequency uniquely predicted the presence of harmful and problem gambling. Furthermore, frequency indicators for tickets and casino uniquely predicted the presence of both harmful and problem gambling. Together, these findings contribute to the development of an empirically based method enabling the minimization of harmful or problem gambling through self-control rather than abstinence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)

 

A longitudinal study of childhood ADHD and substance dependence disorders in early adulthood.Open in a New Window

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood disorder that is associated with many behavioral and social problems. These problems may continue when an individual continues to meet criteria for ADHD as an adult. In this study, we describe the outcome patterns for three different groups: individuals who had ADHD as children, but no longer meet criteria as adults (Childhood-Limited ADHD, n = 71); individuals who met ADHD criteria as children and continue to meet criteria as young adults (Persistent ADHD n = 79); and a control group of individuals who did not meet ADHD diagnostic criteria in childhood or adulthood (n = 69). Groups were compared with examine differences in change in rates of alcohol, marijuana, and nicotine dependence over 3 time points in young adulthood (mean ages 18, 20, and 22 years). The method used is notable as this longitudinal study followed participants from childhood into young adulthood instead of relying on retrospective self-reports from adult participants. Results indicated that there were no significant group differences in change in rates of substance dependence over time. However, individuals whose ADHD persisted into adulthood were significantly more likely to meet DSM–IV criteria for alcohol, marijuana, and nicotine dependence across the 3 time points after controlling for age, sex, childhood stimulant medication use, and childhood conduct problems. Implications of these findings, as well as recommendations for future research, are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)

 

Reasons for substance use and their relationship to subclinical psychotic and affective symptoms, coping, and substance use in a nonclinical sample.Open in a New Window

This paper examines self-reported reasons for substance use in a cross-sectional sample of university students, and investigates the relationship of these reasons for use to psychopathology, coping strategies, and to drug and alcohol consumption. A model of substance use, which hypothesizes that reasons for use and coping strategies mediate the link between psychopathology and substance use, is proposed and is tested and refined using structural equation modeling. Results confirm that substance use is related to psychopathology and that the relationship is partially mediated by reasons for substance use and coping; specifically, dysfunctional coping. These findings suggest that interventions that emphasize the use of different, more adaptive coping strategies to cope with negative states could potentially help substance users with and without significant psychopathology to abstain from or reduce their substance use. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)

 

New approaches for examining associations with latent categorical variables: Applications to substance abuse and aggression.Open in a New Window

Assessments of substance use behaviors often include categorical variables that are frequently related to other measures using logistic regression or chi-square analysis. When the categorical variable is latent (e.g., extracted from a latent class analysis [LCA]), classification of observations is often used to create an observed nominal variable from the latent one for use in a subsequent analysis. However, recent simulation studies have found that this classical 3-step analysis championed by the pioneers of LCA produces underestimates of the associations of latent classes with other variables. Two preferable but underused alternatives for examining such linkages—each of which is most appropriate under certain conditions—are (a) 3-step analysis, which corrects the underestimation bias of the classical approach, and (b) 1-step analysis. The purpose of this article is to dissuade researchers from conducting classical 3-step analysis and to promote the use of the 2 newer approaches that are described and compared. In addition, the applications of these newer models—for use when the independent, the dependent, or both categorical variables are latent—are illustrated through substantive analyses relating classes of substance abusers to classes of intimate partner aggressors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)

 

Engaging in job-related activities is associated with reductions in employment problems and improvements in quality of life in substance abusing patients.Open in a New Window

Reinforcement-based interventions are highly efficacious in the treatment of substance use disorders, and their benefits can extend to other areas of functioning as well. In particular, reinforcing participation in job-related activities may be useful for improving employment outcomes, which in turn may enhance quality of life and decrease substance use. These secondary analyses compared substance abusing patients randomized with reinforcement interventions (N = 185) who selected and completed two or more job-related activities during treatment versus those who did not. Patients who completed two or more job-related activities during treatment had significantly greater reductions in employment-related problems and improvements in quality of life than those who completed only one or no job-related activities, even after controlling for baseline differences that may impact employment outcomes. Further, patients who completed employment activities remained in treatment significantly longer and achieved greater durations of abstinence than those who did not. These data suggest that reinforcing job-attainment activities may have broad beneficial effects. Reinforcement interventions should be considered for enhancing employment skills training acquisition more generally. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)

 

Identifying the factor structure of the SOCRATES in a sample of Latino adolescents.Open in a New Window

The Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale (SOCRATES) is a frequently used measure to assess client motivation to change an alcohol use problem. The factor structure of this measure has most extensively been studied in samples of adult clients with alcohol use disorders with very little research conducted with adolescents or ethnic minority participants. The purpose of the current study is to determine if the factor structure of the SOCRATES (Version 8A–Alcohol) found in prior research can be generalized to a sample of Latino adolescents with substance use disorders. Latino adolescents (N = 106) were administered the SOCRATES and assessed for alcohol use at a pretreatment baseline assessment as part of a larger study. Competing factor models were tested and results via confirmatory factor analysis indicated that a 14-item two factor model best fit the data for the Latino adolescents in this sample. In addition, scores on the Taking Steps factor predicted alcohol use variables. Implications for these results and suggestions for further research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)

 

Interrelationships among individual differences in alcohol demand, impulsivity, and alcohol misuse.Open in a New Window

An Alcohol Purchase Task (APT) is a novel behavioral economic measure for characterizing the incentive value of alcohol to an individual (i.e., alcohol demand). Individual differences in alcohol demand have been associated with a number of alcohol-related outcomes and the current investigation sought to extend these previous findings in a number of ways. The goals of the study were: (a) to examine the relationship between alcohol demand and alcohol misuse in a large sample of community adults; (b) to examine sex differences in alcohol demand; and, (c) to examine the relationship between alcohol demand and impulsive personality traits, both in general and as moderating variables. Participants (N = 720; 39% female) were adult smokers who reported drinking in the last year and were recruited from the community at large. All four behavioral economic indices of demand from the APT were significantly associated with alcohol misuse, with Omax and intensity uniquely associated in combined analyses. Males exhibited significantly higher demand, but these differences were largely eliminated after adjusting for drinks per week and other covariates. Trait levels of urgency, sensation-seeking and lack of premeditation were significantly associated with intensity and urgency was associated with Omax, but no moderating relationships were present. The significant relationships between aspects of impulsivity and the demand indices may signify a common process underlying disinhibition and demand for alcohol. These findings further support the relationship between indices of alcohol demand and alcohol misuse and a link between demand and impulsivity. Methodological considerations and future directions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)

 

A preliminary evaluation of a web-based intervention for college marijuana use.Open in a New Window

Young adults in college have high rates of marijuana use, abuse, and dependence. Web-based interventions are increasingly popular, but their dissemination exceeds empirical support. One popular but understudied program is The Marijuana eCHECKUP TO GO (e-TOKE) for Universities & Colleges (San Diego State University Research Foundation, 2009). The aim of the present study was to evaluate its short-term effectiveness in changing marijuana involvement and perceived norms in undergraduates. Participants were 317 undergraduates (52% female, 78% White) who reported marijuana use within the month preceding baseline; each was randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions formed by crossing e-TOKE versus assessment only, with brief versus extensive baseline assessment (to assess assessment reactivity). Thus, 161 (51%) received eTOKE (77 with extended baseline, 84 with brief baseline), and 156 (49%) received assessment-only control (85 with extended baseline, 71 with brief baseline). 1 month later, all participants reported on marijuana use, problems, abuse and dependence symptoms, and norms. Assessment reactivity analyses yielded no significant differences by assessment condition. Individuals completing the e-TOKE program reported less extreme descriptive norms (ps ps > 0.10). Thus, e-TOKE reduces perceptions of others’ use, but this study did not provide evidence for its utility in changing personal use and problem indicators in the short-term. More research with longer follow-ups is indicated, given the possibility that descriptive norms could mediate behavior change. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)

 

Associations between chronic pain status, attempts to quit smoking, and use of pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation.Open in a New Window

Chronic pain and tobacco dependence are two highly prevalent and comorbid conditions, and there is mounting evidence that smokers with comorbid pain may experience greater difficulty when attempting to quit smoking. The main goal of the current study was to examine cross-sectional relations between lifetime chronic pain status, number of past attempts to quit smoking, and past use of pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation. Data were derived from a large, nationally representative survey of households in the continental United States. After adjusting for relevant third variables, analyses revealed that smokers who endorsed lifetime chronic pain were more likely to report having used pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation. Chronic pain status was not associated with number of past attempts to quit smoking. Thus, smokers with chronic pain appear motivated to quit smoking, and may be particularly amenable to pharmacologic intervention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)

 

Treatment-seeking precipitators in problem gambling: Analysis of data from a gambling helpline.Open in a New Window

Although research on treatment precipitators for problem gambling is scarce, telephone surveys have consistently shown that financial and emotional problems resulting from problem gambling are the factors which recovered or active gamblers most frequently report as treatment precipitators. The present study sought to build on previous evidence by analyzing the demographic and gambling-related information provided by gamblers calling the helpline operated by the New Mexico Council on Problem Gambling and receiving a referral to private counseling. Specifically we examined the differences between the callers who initiated treatment with a private counselor after receiving the referral (n = 223), and those who were likewise referred to counseling but did not attend the first appointment (n = 231). The 2 groups could only be distinguished by the fact that the therapy-initiating group cited family or financial problems as the reason for calling the helpline. Further analyses revealed that helpline staff also had an influence on counseling initiation. These findings, along with other differences between groups call for further research on the most effective ways of targeting problem gamblers who call a helpline so as to facilitate their progression to the action stage of change. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)

 

Modeling motivation three ways: Effects of MI metrics on treatment outcomes among adolescents.Open in a New Window

The purpose of this study was to determine how three different measures of motivation (cognitive motivation, taking steps, and self-efficacy for change and maintenance) predict substance use outcomes after engaging in a Motivational Interviewing intervention. Participants were 225 high school students enrolled in Project Reducing the Effects of Alcohol and Drugs on Youth (Project READY), a NIDA-funded intervention initially developed with Motivational Interviewing (MI) principles for adolescents identified by schools as having problems with alcohol or other drug use. We measured motivation at multiple time points during the intervention in multiple methods. Cognitive motivation was assessed using a Decisional Balance matrix at Session 3 of treatment. We measured self-efficacy with the Situational Confidence Questionnaire, administered at 4-, 8-, 12-, and 16-week follow-ups. A measure of taking steps (SOCRATES, v. 8) was administered at intake and Session 8. We hypothesized that motivation would follow the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) pathway, and we proposed a model where cognitive motivation would predict self-confidence for change and taking steps toward change, and self-confidence and taking steps would predict substance use outcomes. We tested our model using path analysis in AMOS and found support for a motivational continuum predicting percent days abstinent at 16-week follow-up [χ² = 2.75, df = 7, p = .90, CFI = 1, RMSEA (90% confidence interval) = .00 − .03]. This model demonstrates that motivational metrics predict unique outcomes at different time points and serve as important components of intervention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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